On this page I will provide links to various regulations which may apply to  the  
control of a narrow tilting vehicle.

The most important point to maintain in focus is that when the vehicle width  is
reduced  the control of the tilt becomes an integral component of the control of
the steer of the vehicle.

Regulations always speak of the "directional control of the vehicle".  Obviously
this is the fundamental requirement.

Conventional vehicles have tilt control built in [motorcar], and so directional
control of the vehicle is concerned only with steer of the wheels[ or manipulation
by "skid steer"]. In a narrow vehicle the control of the tilt is required before the
control of the  steer can be effective, so when we speak of "all components
necessary for the effective directional control of the vehicle", we must  be aware
of the implications.

Clearly,  if you reduce the width of a vehicle there is a point where control of the
tilt is a mandatory component. Of course the actual consideration is the" track
width"  : "height of the mass" ratio.

Briefly there are a few options for failsafe control of the tilt/steer

1]   Make  control of both tilt and steer mechanically based.   A conventional
motorcycle does this but requires additional driver skills. FTC  can also do this
and requires no skill above conventional motorcar control.

2]    Ensure that the tilt is controlled to the vertical position during a system failure
and rely on  conventional wheel steer.   The CARVER does this, and so the
Carver must conform to the stability rules for non tilt 3 wheeled vehicles and is

3]   Ensure that there is a reserve of stored energy to allow for a limited number of
tilt cycles. The CLEVER is proposed to operate like this.

4\   Ensure that there are two independent methods to provide control during the
failure of  any system.

Recent alterations to the rule UN/ECE Regulation 79 allow for a wide range of
solutions, many of the traditional requirements for mechanical operation of
components  required for the effective steer of the vehicle have been relaxed .
However the fundamental requirement remains the "easy ,safe and effective
directional control of the vehicle".   The manufacturer must be able to prove his

The regulations are further interpreted by individual countries  and I will include
these interpretations.

The links to the documents are in the margins of this page and I hope they assist.
I will update  and add information, so any information or comments are
The regulations for " failsafe control" are construction requirements. There are separate regulations
for satisfactory vehicle performance which are sometimes incorporated into the same document.
"The introduction of a motorcycle with control
characteristics which  are easy safe and
effective, would be a major contribution to the
development of efficient personal transport

Phillip James.   www. tiltingvehicle.com